This an update to my original post from 4 December.
In a press release today the Japanese space agency JAXA confirmed that the smaller rocket motors had fired as planned and the Akatsuki is now in orbit round Venus. The announcement (http://global.jaxa.jp/press/2015/12/20151207_akatsuki.html) went on to say:
“The orbiter is now in good health. We are currently measuring and calculating its orbit after the operation. It will take a few days to estimate the orbit, thus we will announce the operation result once it is determined.”
This is great achievement for the Japanese space programme and hopefully the spacecraft will provide us with many exciting discoveries about Venus.
The image shown above was taken by Akatsuki in ultraviolet light on 7 December 2015, just after it went into orbit around Venus. It shows far more detail of the cloud patterns in the planet’s upper atomosphere than can be seen in visible light.
Original post below
On 7 December 2010 the Japanese spacecraft Akatsuki (named after the Japanese word for dawn) arrived at Venus after a six month journey. It was only the second spacecraft launched since 1989 to visit the Earth’s sister planet and, if it had succeeded in orbiting Venus, it would have had been a tremendous boost for the Japanese space programme.
Launch of Akatsuki in May 2010 – Image from Wikimedia Commons
Unfortunately, when it arrived at Venus its main engine failed to fire properly to slow the spacecraft down and put it into orbit, so it shot past the planet and went into orbit around the Sun.
Venus as seen from Earth – Image from NASA
However all was not lost. Other than the main engines, all parts of the spacecraft turned out to be fully functioning, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will get a second chance to get Akatsuki into orbit when it passes close to Venus on Monday 7 December. This is very unusual for spacecraft which fail to go into orbit. Normally when a major mishap like this occurs the space agency doesn’t get a second chance.
How will the spacecraft get into orbit if its main engine has failed?
The thrust or force provided by rocket motors is usually measured in units called newtons, usually abbreviated to N. The main engine which failed to fire had a thrust of 500 N. To get the spacecraft into orbit JAXA will need to fire 4 of the 8 small rocket motors which were only designed to finely tune the spacecraft’s position. Each of these small motors only generates 20 N thrust and they will have to fire for a total of nearly 21 minutes to slow down the spacecraft to allow it go into orbit, something they were never designed to do. It is also fortunate that, unlike most spacecraft, the small rocket motors and the faulty main engine of the spacecraft use the same fuel, a liquid called hydrazine. If this was’t the case then this rescue operation would be impossible.
What will the spacecraft achieve?
Assuming the spacecraft successfully gets into orbit around Venus it has a whole host of instruments which will return useful data. Some of these are listed below:
- a special camera to study lightning flashes, which it will do when on the night side of Venus
- an instrument to study the structure of high-altitude clouds to enable us to understand more about Venus’s weather
- an ultraviolet camera to study the distribution of specific atmospheric gases such as sulfur dioxide in ultraviolet light, a form of light invisible to the naked eye
- an infrared defector which will peer through Venus’s atmosphere to see heat radiation emitted from Venus’ surface rocks and will help researchers to spot active volcanoes, if they exist.
Let’s all keep our fingers crossed for a success on December 7!
Artists impression of Akatsuki orbiting Venus – Image from JAXA