This year, the June solstice will fall on 21 June. As most people know, In the northern hemisphere, it is the day of the year when there is the most daylight and when the Sun is at its highest in the midday sky.
The origin of the word solstice is from two Latin words: sol, which means Sun, and sistere, to stand still. On the days around the solstice, the Sun stops getting higher, appears to stand still at the same height for a few days, and then gets lower in the midday sky.
Maximum height, or elevation, of the Sun, measured in degrees above the horizon.. The graph is for a location 50 degrees latitude North, which is the same latitude as the southern tip of England.
The fact that the Sun’s elevation changes gradually, around the solstice, means the amount of daylight changes very little from day to day.
Table of sunrise and sunset times for London (source timeanddate.com 2021).
Precise definition of the solstice
Although the solstice is commonly to be June 21. There is a more precise astronomical definition. The diagram above shows the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. For clarity the sizes of the Earth and Sun have been greatly exaggerated.
- During June, marked A in the diagram, the Earth’s North Pole is tilted towards the Sun and the days are longer in the northern hemisphere.
- During December, marked C in the diagram, the Earth’s South Pole is tilted towards the Sun and days are longer in the southern hemisphere.
- At points Band D, known as the equinoxes, neither pole is tilted towards the Sun and the amounts of daylight in the northern and southern hemisphere are equal.
The precise astronomical definition of the June solstice (also called the summer solstice in the northern hemisphere) is the exact point in time when the North Pole is tilted furthest towards the Sun. The times for this event for the years 2021 to 2026 are given in the table below – in UTC (commonly known in the UK as GMT), in Tokyo time (which is 9 hours ahead of UTC) and in Hawaiian time (which is 10 hours behind UTC).
As you can see, the time of the solstice varies from year to year and place to place. It can fall on 20, 21 or 22 June, depending on your longitude (and thus your time zone).
Importance of the solstice to early man
The solstice was of great importance to early man, and many prehistoric sites appear to have been built to celebrate it. The most famous of these is Stonehenge, which is located in Wiltshire, England. It is a set of concentric stone circles built between 4000 and 5000 years ago. It was an amazing feat of construction for stone age man. The stone circle is over 30 metres in diameter. The largest stones are more than 9 metres tall, weigh over 25 tonnes and were hauled over 30 km to the site. It is reckoned that the smaller stones were moved from western Wales, a distance of 225 km (Jarus 2014).
Image from Wikimedia commons
At the centre of Stonehenge is a horseshoe arrangement of five sets of arches called triliths, each containing three stones. The open side of the horseshoe points north east towards a large stone 80 metres away from the main circle, known as the ‘Heel Stone’.
Image from Wikimedia commons
The monument is arranged in such a way that, for a few days either side of the June solstice and only at those dates, someone standing in the centre of the horse shoe and facing North East will see the Sun rise over the Heel stone.
How sunrise at the summer solstice at Stonehenge would have looked after the monument’s construction.
It is amazing that prehistoric man built such a large monument to line up with the June solstice. But early man, without artificial light and central heating, was far more in tune with the natural environment than we are today. The solstice would have been an important event for a people living with only natural daylight.
The Solstice today
The solstice is still celebrated at Stonehenge today. Modern groups with ancient origins, such as Druids and Pagans, who revere the natural world more than many modern humans, travel to Stonehenge to watch the Sun rise at the solstice each year.
In the 1970s as a young child I visited Stonehenge with my parents and was able to walk right up to the stones. Nowadays, to prevent damage to such an important monument, access is more controlled (and more expensive!) and visits need to be booked in advance. The Stone Circle Experience which allows, visitors to spend 45 minutes inside the stones costs £53 (equivalent to $68 at the current exchange rate).
The one exception to this is for the solstice where, according to their website, English Heritage who manage the site are planning to allow free but carefully managed access for the day of the summer solstice
Image credit English Heritage
To those of you who live in the southern hemisphere the June solstice is of course the winter solstice, when the midday Sun is at its lowest in the sky. After the solstice the days start getting gradually longer and the nights gradually shorter, although the change doesn’t really become noticeable until July.
Also, It isn’t true that for the entire northern hemisphere the midday Sun is at its highest in the sky on the solstice. This is only true for location north of the Tropic of Cancer, (latitude 23.5 degrees -shown as the red line below). At low latitudes between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer the Sun is directly overhead at midday on two dates either side of the solstice. For example, in San Juan, Puerto Rico, which lies 18.5 degrees north of the equator, the Sun is overhead at midday on May 13 and July 30.
Jarus, O (2014) Stonehenge: Facts & Theories About Mysterious Monument, Available at: http://www.livescience.com/22427-stonehenge-facts.html(Accessed: 1 June 2022).
Time and Date (2021 London, ENG, United Kingdom — sunrise, sunset, and daylength, June 2018, Available at: http://www.timeanddate.com/sun/uk/london(Accessed: 2 June 2022).